"If I shut up the heavens and there is no rain; if I command the locusts to ravage the land; or if I let loose pestilence against My people, when My people, who bear My name, humble themselves, pray, and seek My favor and turn from their evil ways, then I will hear in My heavenly abode and forgive their sins and heal their land." II Chronicles 7:13-14

Chapter 1

The Sudden Civilization

by Walter Baucum

A question that has fascinated archaeologists and historians for centuries is just who were the Sumerians, the “sudden civilization” that appeared in full swing in Mesopotamia over 4,000 years ago?

The Almighty repeated to Isaac an unconditional promise He had made with Abraham:

Gen. 26: 3-5, 24 (TKN) Reside in this land, and I will be with you and bless you; I will assign all these lands to you and to your heirs, fulfilling the oath that I swore to your father Abraham. I will make your heirs as numerous as the stars of heaven, and assign to your heirs all these lands, so that all the nations of the earth shall bless themselves by your heirs—inasmuch as Abraham obeyed Me and kept My charge: My Commandments, My Laws, and My Teachings... That night YHWH appeared to him and said, ‘I am YHWH of your father Abraham. Fear not, for I am with you, and I will bless you and increase your offspring for the sake of My servant Abraham.’”

Isaac’s son Jacob [Israel] inherited this promise. It is our contention that the United States, the British Commonwealth countries, Western Europe, and Scandinavia are the Israelite Tribes and therefore the inheritors of this promise to our forefathers. But who were the Sumerians, and what do they have to do with us today?

Israel, Isaac, and Abraham can be traced back to Shem, one of the three sons of Noah. Shem’s lineage inherited the responsibility of keeping intact the knowledge and true worship of the CREATOR.

Shem was the great-grandfather of Eber (Gen. 10:21). The word Hebrew is a derivative of the word Eber (Strong’s Exhaustive Concordance numbers H5680, H5677, and H5674). Shem was born 98 years before the Flood of Noah’s time and lived 502 years after it. He likely began his kingdom before the Deluge, continuing it afterwards with his own name Shem, or Sem. The “r” in Sumer was not pronounced in the Hebrew, nor was the “h.” It was from his name that we know it today as the Sumerian civilization. See also Genesis 11:10-30.

It was an advanced civilization undoubtedly because of their close contact with our CREATOR and their being taught by Him through righteous Noah. This “instant civilization” replaced the earlier [some likely having started immediately after the Flood] primitive peoples called Hassuna, Samarra, Halafian, and ‘Ubaid in the Mesopotamian delta area. The Sumerian civilization was in full swing by 2900 BCE and depended heavily on trade with areas outside Mesopotamia. It flourished until approximately 2000 BCE, at which time it was eclipsed by Babylonian power.

“The Sumerians not only developed a civilization, but they also were the first people in human history to record their literature and beliefs in writing. They set down age-old legends of great floods and of warring gods that were to survive through the millennia to become part of the ‘Old Testament’ and part of the cultural heritage of Western Civilization.”[1]
The Advanced Civilization

Some amazing firsts of the Sumerians as interpreted and written by Zecharia Sitchin are given in brief by Lloyd Pye. Some also were quoted from noted Sumerologist Samuel Kramer’s seminal work, From the Tablets of Sumer.

They include the first schools, bicameral congress, historians, pharmacopoeia, “farmer’s almanac,” cosmogony and cosmology, proverbs and sayings, literary debates, library catalogues, law codes and social reforms, medicine, agriculture, and search for world peace and harmony.

The schools taught language and writing, as well as the sciences of the day—botany, zoology, geography, mathematics, and theology. Literary works were studied and copied, and new ones were composed. The language itself was a marvel, with its “precise grammar and rich vocabulary.” Cuneiform, the world’s first writing, ultimately evolved into a very simple and efficient technique.

We sometimes do not give the ancients credit for their vast knowledge. 1 Kings 4:30-34 says that King Solomon knew these sciences well, probably passed down to him through Shem’s lineage.

Sumerian scribes covered a remarkable range of topics, including “cosmological tales, epic poems, histories of kings, temple records, commercial contracts, marriage and divorce records, astronomical tables, astrological forecasts, mathematical formulas, geographic lists, grammar and vocabulary school texts.”

These people also founded the first true cities, each having 10,000 to 50,000 inhabitants. When a city became too large to be easily manageable, part of the population left to create a new city that could grow without constraint. This indicated definite urban planning, which even our modern city planners fail to do sometimes. Cities were laid out in grids, with streets easing congestion between houses and buildings, and facilitating movement and commerce. Post-Sumerian cultures tended to sprawl haphazardly around a village-sized center. Sumerian city centers were dominated by magnificent high-rise palaces and temples [ziggurats], which were built to exact specifications outlined in detailed architectural plans. City perimeters were walled for defense. Water was supplied by brilliant canal and aqueduct systems, and they had equally clever drainage and sewage disposal.

They began reinforcing clay bricks with chopped reeds and straw, to which they added the kiln furnace to fire those bricks, making them strong enough and durable enough to construct their high-rises and temples (some over 100 feet tall), as well as to pave streets. These kilns also forged the first durable pottery, such as cups, bowls, plates, urns, storage vessels, etc. This led directly to the first age of metals, the Bronze Age, because it allowed intense but controllable temperatures to be contained in furnaces without contamination from dust or ashes. Metallurgy in turn led to the first money (coins) and banking.[2]

Concerning metals, Dr. Wilhelm Konig, an Austrian archaeologist employed by the Iraq Museum, unearthed in 1936 a 2000-year-old vase, six inches high, which contained inside it a copper cylinder set in pitch, and inside that an iron rod secured with an asphalt plug. It resembled others in the Berlin Museum, some larger with a repetition of the cylinder settings. It occurred to some, including Dr. Konig, that these might be dry cell batteries, which, understandably, were no longer in working condition after several thousand years. However, when they were exactly reconstructed and provided with a new electrolyte, they worked. This ancient use of electricity might of course prove only that electric power was used for electroplating metals with gold and silver, as is still done in the bazaars of the Middle East. It is unclear if this was a Sumerian invention, but electroplating of metals was found to be an ancient Israelite skill also.[3]

Because no ores were there except naphtha, which was asphalts and bitumens that seeped to the surface, Sumerians had to locate and retrieve mineral ores from wherever they existed to supply their furnaces. This led them to develop the first extensive international trade routes by using naphtha as their principle medium of exchange. They used it also for road surfacing, waterproofing, caulking, cementing, painting, and molding. This extensive use of petroleum products led to the development of advanced chemistry needed to create a wide range of paints and pigments, pottery glazes, and the artificial production of semiprecious stones like lapis lazuli.

There is evidence that as these Sumerians spread out to different parts of the world, perhaps even to every continent on earth, they mapped it and used what today we call the zodiac as a direction finder. The first so-called zodiacs were direction maps that radiated out from Sumer and which used the star configurations as compass points.
Some Other Firsts of the Sumerians

What else did these Sumerians do? Pye continues:

“They produced poetry, songs, and dances, through which, the Greek scholar Philo claimed, they sought to gain ‘worldwide harmony and unison.’

“Sumerians also created an efficient system of mathematics based on the number 60 (called sexagesimal). It enabled them easily to divide into tiny fractions and to multiply with equal ease into the millions and to calculate roots and raise numbers by any power. The 60-second minute and 60-minute hour are two vestiges remaining from the original system. So are the 360-degree circle, the 12-inch foot, and the dozen.” [These measurements are still used by the U.S. and Great Britain countries, whose citizens are, we contend, some of the progeny of the Sumerians through Israel and Abraham (Flavius Josephus says that Abram taught the Egyptians mathematics and engineering).]

“Closely related to their mathematics was their geometry, which permitted their engineers to survey, level, and construct highly intricate and efficient irrigation systems for their widespread agriculture. That geometry also contributed to their astonishingly complete astronomy.

“The Sumerians developed a wide array of musical instruments—lutes, harps, flutes, pipes—and a playing system much like the heptatonic-diatonic scale used today.”[4]

Astronomical Firsts

Some astronomical firsts of the Sumerians are amazing. Their very accurate calendars were fashioned around the mind-boggling timeframe of 25,920 years, the “Great Year” based on a sophisticated celestial phenomenon known as precession [the time Earth’s polar axis needs to circle the sky and point again at the same North Star]. They predicted sun risings and settings that were accurate enough to predict eclipses. Necessary to predict eclipses was knowledge of the shapes, movements, and relationships between the earth, moon, and sun. They accomplished this by using the same heliacal system we use today, by measuring the rising and setting of the stars and planets in our skies relative to the sun.

They kept accurate ephemerides, tables that predicted future positions of celestial bodies. “Those ephemerides were not based on observations, which were impossible with the naked eye, but on mathematical formulas governed by rules handed down from some as yet undetermined source.” They also understood the celestial phenomenon known as retrograde, the erratic motion of the other planets relative to Earth caused by Earth’s faster or slower orbital speed around the sun. It required an extremely long period—several centuries—to grasp the idea of retrograde and successfully track it.

They did their astronomical tracking using a complex method of spherical geometry, which postulated a round earth with an equator and poles. They knew Earth and the other planets moved around the sun in a flat plane of an ecliptic, which over the course of a year resulted in gradual north-south shifts of sunrises and sunsets along Earth’s horizon, producing equinoxes and solstices. These sophisticated concepts are utilized by modern astronomers in the same manner.[5]

They also lend credence to Scripture that the knowledge of the CREATOR of the solar system, indeed, the entire universe, was passed down through Noah and Shem and their progeny. Berlitz mentions something of interest.

“A number of star features that could not be seen without the use of a telescope were given the same names in different languages in both the Old and New Worlds. Such was the Scorpion, a star cluster containing a comet, which reminded both the (Sumero-) Babylonians and the Maya of Central America of a scorpion and was called by that name by both races. Greek astronomers adopted the observation of the Babylonians that Uranus regularly covered its moons, an occurrence also unable to be seen by the naked eye, and converted it to a legend that the god Uranus had the habit of alternately eating and later disgorging his children.

“In mythology, Mars, the god of war, had two fierce horses, Phoebos (fear) and Deimos (terror), to pull his chariot, the planet Mars, a legend possibly drawn from ancient knowledge that Mars had two moons. But in the centuries between ancient and modern civilization, the moons of Mars were forgotten until Ashap Hall saw them by telescopic observation in 1877 and appropriately named them after the war god’s two horses. [Jonathan Swift, in Gulliver’s Travels (1726), wrote that Mars had two moons and correctly gave their dimensions and distance from the planet.]

“The ancient references, which are really astronomical data disguised as legends, to the two moons of Mars, the multiple moons of Jupiter, the five disappearing and reappearing moons of Uranus, the nine moons of Saturn, and even the horns of Venus, suggest that astronomers of former cultures were capable of using artificial sight amplification that was probably a form of telescope.

“The modern telescope was not invented until 1609, but ground-glass artifacts found at different archaeological sites seem to indicate that the ancients were able to manufacture an optical lens.”[6]

As mentioned, they fashioned the first zodiac [called “the Shining Herd”] as direction points for maps, dividing the heavens into twelve distinct houses. Early on, the pagan Babylonian priesthood turned this zodiac into a religious thing, forcing the people to worship the stars instead of the true CREATOR.

Today, we ask why a primitive people barely out of the Stone Age would conceivably need such astronomical knowledge, much less know how to calculate the spherical planet movements in ecliptic orbits around a relatively stationary sun.

Not only did they seem to know about Uranus, Neptune, and Pluto, but also they described Uranus and Neptune as “watery twins” with “blue-green” color. When Zecharia Sitchin reported this in 1976, every astronomer on earth believed his account was utter nonsense. Then, in 1986, when the Voyager satellite passed Uranus to photograph it for the first time, it was, indeed, found to be watery [its surface was a kind of slushy ice] and it was colored blue-green. “Three years later, in 1989, Voyager reached Neptune, the ‘twin’ of Uranus. A few months earlier, Sitchin had written an article detailing precisely what Voyager would find, based on the Sumerian texts. He submitted it to magazines around the world, several of who published it; however, none in the heavily co-opted U.S. dared to. Surely enough, Voyager found Neptune was just as the Sumerians had claimed: a blue-green ball of slushy ice!”[7]

Also, the Sumerian “Epic of Creation” has obvious parallels to the Hebrew Scriptures’ Book of Genesis. Called Enuma Elish, it is an allegory that relates a complex, thrilling tale of battles raging between fearsome “gods” in heaven.

What can we make of this? Both Pye and Sitchin seem to believe in things [and gods] taken point blank from the Sumerian writings, and who take them quite more literally than most people have done. Without going into more detail about these translations, Sitchin basically believes in another planet in our solar system, so far not discovered by modern science, that comes around only once in every 3,600 years. Their inhabitants came to earth and, by gene-splicing and genetic manipulation of themselves with Neanderthals [or Homo erectus], created modern man for the purpose of slave labor.

On one of its passes through our solar system, it destroyed a planet between Mars and Jupiter, causing part of it to zing toward an orbit around Earth to become our moon, and the rest to become known as the asteroid belt. These very likely could have been literal cosmic events embellished profusely by literary-minded people who over time kept the knowledge alive with imaginative additions.

According to their writings, it was these other-planet people [Nibiru was the planet’s name] who taught the early Sumerians all that is listed above. A better explanation, though, and one which a number of Biblical scholars ascribe to, is that the CREATOR Himself taught mankind all these things, making pre-Flood peoples much more knowledgeable and advanced than we ever have given them credit for. If such be the case, Shem, who was 98 years old when the Flood came, started this Sumerian civilization probably prior to the Flood and continued it for centuries after it. This would explain the “sudden civilization” in that area of the world after the waters receded. Before Babel, when the languages were confounded, all of these children of Shem, Ham, and Japheth would have been living virtually together. Shem’s lineage retained this knowledge, while the other two sons of Noah rejected or perverted it.

A definite split between the people of the CREATOR [Seth’s side] and Cain’s people is shown in pre-Flood Biblical literature. Many believe that Ham married a woman who had been indoctrinated with the Cain side of believers, and that she seduced Ham into the same belief. For it was on Ham’s side that Nimrod, the arch rebel (called the “mighty hunter before[8] the CREATOR” in the KJV) injected this false belief system onto the world that he conquered.

Sumerian Migrations

Sumerians appeared full-blown, their only precursor being a very primitive agrarian society called the ‘Ubaids. ‘Ubaids were a village-based society of farmers. They exhibited very few of the hallmarks of the very advanced Sumerians who provided all subsequent civilizations with over 100 “firsts” ascribed to every superior society.

Perhaps some of these earlier groups could have been from Cain’s side. Seth’s side, down through the Flood and afterward, would have been obedient to the Almighty and taught by Him, whereas Cain’s side would have lacked that privilege. This would explain the Sumerians’ prowess in astronomy, math, engineering, navigation, law, etc. However, Cain’s descendants knew that the best way to capture people’s minds was by “religion.”

Today’s world religions that characterize the original “anti-Creator” way of life historically have kept the people not only “enslaved,” but also in most cases more primitive than their counterparts. Wherever these enlightened Sumerians traveled to, the people [they met] were brought up to a higher level of affluence and civilization. This later became an Israelite [trait] as they too traveled to different parts of the globe.

Gen 22:15-18 “The angel of the ETERNAL called to Abraham a second time from heaven, and said, ‘By Myself I swear, the ETERNAL declares: Because you have done this and have not withheld your son, your favored one, I will bestow My blessing upon you and make your descendants as numerous as the stars of heaven and the sands on the seashore; and your descendants shall seize the gates of their foes. All the nations of the earth shall bless themselves by your descendants, because you have obeyed My command’” [italics added].

One example to illustrate this point is that since many Sumerian cultural items have been found in Greece, we can assume that some of the Sumerians migrated there, perhaps early on during the time that Nimrod was establishing his world empire. Berlitz mentions, “An encrusted and fused metallic object containing wheels, found by divers in 1900 on the sea bottom near Antikythera in the Mediterranean Sea, was relegated to the Athens Museum, where it was tentatively qualified as a child’s toy because of the wheels. Upon re-examination and a series of chemical baths under the direction of Derek DeSolla Price, the author and archaeologist, the wheels proved to be gears, and the object, according to what could be read on the metal, turned out to be a ‘star computer’ to shoot the sun, moon, and stars [to determine their positions]. The use of such a technical aid, the only one yet found, implies a much greater knowledge of navigation and archaeology among Cretan and early Greek sea captains than was previously suspected. They would have had the ability to sail by night out of sight of land and perhaps past the Pillars of Hercules to the far islands of the Atlantic Sea.”[9]

Also, the Sumerian Phalanx[10] was imported to Greece. Centuries later, Philip of Macedonia perfected it, and his son Alexander marched through the Persian Empire with it. Evidence exists that Alexander’s empire was an Israelite empire.

The people of Sumer traveled far and wide in search of raw materials and luxury imports. Life without trade was impossible. They carried their political, religious, and other cultural ideas with them. Their advanced knowledge allowed them to be established in positions of rule and authority wherever they went.

This corroborates too the early nautical position that Shem’s lineage carried on. It will be shown that Danite Phoenicians, the Sea Peoples, the Israelite Empire under Kings David and Solomon, the Greeks, the Libyans, the Carthaginians, and the Celts continued this tradition. Today, the Israelite Tribes of the United States and Great Britain are still nautical powers.

Both sides at various times spread throughout the world, apparently Cain’s side (carried on by Nimrod’s Babylonians) going first in most cases and Seth’s side (Shem’s “Sumerians”) following. We have example after example of a “ruling hierarchy” moving into these backward areas and pulling up the people to a higher standard of civilization.

Since Shem lived 98 years before the Flood, he could have taken his side to a very advanced degree of civilization afterwards, bringing Sumeria’s influence to these other post-Flood people. The Hebrew Scriptures contend that Noah’s Flood was worldwide. Whether the false religion was started by Cain and then carried across the Flood by Noah’s son Ham, to be continued by Cush, Nimrod, and Semiramis, or whether it began with Nimrod and his wife is inconsequential. Alexander Hislop says that Noah’s son Cush (Nimrod’s father) started it. Two chief “religions,” Nimrod’s and Shem’s, were extant in the ancient world [and still are today].

Conquest and Sumerian Displacement

At one time in history, the Tribe of Ham led by Nimrod, conquered the Sumerian (Shem-ite) cities in Mesopotamia. His probably was the first world empire.

Ancient Irish records tell about a Ninus who came to Britain, but who left and allowed the land to lie uninhabited for three or four centuries, until other people began to trickle in. Ninus, or the Nimrod of the Hebrew Scriptures, also probably caused a mass migration of Shem-ites out of the land of Sumeria, especially those who refused to go along with the pagan religion imposed on the populace by him and his mother-wife, Semiramis. Some of these displaced people went to present-day Palestine and some to other parts of the world, such as Peru and Mexico.

Nimrod brought with his empire this anti-Creator’s way of life, which undoubtedly caused his own demise, for history recounts how Shem, a “preacher of righteousness” who had gone to live where Jerusalem is today, had to chase him down and kill him. Tradition says he was killed on a Friday in Egypt, which was part of his empire at that time. Nimrod’s wife-mother, Semiramis (they were called Isis and Osiris in Egypt), claimed he was resurrected the following Sunday and lives today in spirit form. To commemorate his death, a forty-days’ period of mourning was instituted by his wife/mother. Another name for him was Bacchus, meaning, “the Lamented one.” Among the Phoenicians, Bacchos meant “weeping.” As the women wept for Tammuz (Ezekiel 8:14), so did they for Bacchus. Hislop reveals that this is where the “weeping for Tammuz” came, Tammuz being another name of Nimrod. This season of “weeping” is believed by some to be our modern days “Lent.”[11]

Proof exists also that Shem was the Scriptural Melchizedek, an ancient man so old that he was thought to be without mother or father. He had gone to live in Salem, which later came to be known as Jerusalem. Abraham gave a tenth of the spoils of war to him after the battle with the Kings (Genesis 14:14-16).

Biblical chronology (Hislop, p. 6) says that 1987 BCE is when Nimrod was killed, his body cut in pieces, and these pieces sent to the major nations of the world as a warning against apostasy. Shem died 1846 BCE and Abraham was born 1996 BCE.

When Nimrod began his kingdom and apostasy, he and his mother-wife Semiramis early began insinuating their false religion, and warfare, into and onto that great Sumerian civilization. Many “Semites” fled to various parts of the world, bringing their advanced knowledge and skills with them. Old Shem himself moved to and dwelt in Salem. He is known in Scripture as Melchizedek, and Salem is Jerusalem, which means “city of peace.” It was the same area that the patriarch Abram later migrated to, he and his progeny being known as “shepherd kings” (see chapter on Hyksos).

These Sumerians (Shem-ites) were so far advanced that some authors, including Jean Hunt, claim they were from Atlantis. The analogy fits. Shem’s great pre-flood civilization, with its cities and science, was sunk (beneath the Flood), and Ham, probably jealous of his brother Shem, began to take over immediately post-Flood after its sudden reappearance. Of Ham’s four sons (Cush, Canaan, Mizraim, Phut), Cush begat this Nimrod, the “mighty hunter before (against) the ETERNAL.” Genesis 10:10 says, “And the beginning of his (Nimrod’s) kingdom was Babel, and Erech, and Accad, and Calneh.”

Now a beginning naturally implies something to succeed, and in verse 11 we find it. “Out of that land he [Asshur] went forth, being made strong [or when he had been made strong], and builded Nineveh, and the city Rehoboth, and Calah.” This exactly agrees with the statement in the ancient history of Justin;

‘Ninus strengthened the greatness of his acquired dominion by continued possession. Having subdued, therefore, his neighbors, when, by an accession of forces being still further strengthened, he went forth against other tribes, and every new victory paved the way for another, he subdued all the peoples of the East.’

“Thus, then, Nimrod, or Ninus, was the builder of Nineveh; and the origin of the name of that city, as ‘the habitation of Ninus,’ is accounted for, and light is thereby, at the same time, cast on the fact that the name of the chief part of the ruins of Nineveh is Nimroud at this day.

“‘Ninus, king of the Assyrians,’ says Trogus Pompeius, epitomized by Justin, first of all changed the contented moderation of the ancient manners, incited by a new passion, the desire of conquest. He was the first who carried on war against his neighbors, and he conquered all nations from Assyria to Libya, as they were yet unacquainted with the arts of war.”[12]

Note that the word “Assyrians” has wide latitude of meaning among the classic authors, encompassing Babylonians, Chaldeans, and Assyrians.

Hislop believed that Babylon could not properly have existed as a city till Nimrod, by establishing his power there, made it the foundation and starting point of his greatness. Although the Hebrew Scriptures say that the beginning of his kingdom was Babylon, our understanding is that the Babel builders, when their speech was confounded, were scattered abroad on the face of the earth, and they therefore deserted both the city and the tower which they had commenced to build. Nimrod’s father, Cush, a son of Ham, the son of Noah, is credited with starting the building of Babel, as he also is credited with starting the great apostasy that Nimrod continued.[13]

Sumerian Influence and Empire Building

Proof exists that the Sumerians were the first of the “empire” builders that passed through the lineage of Shem and Abraham, and which Israel inherited and continued, right up to the present in which the United States and the British Commonwealth countries (Israelite Tribes grown into nations) continued. Whether Sumeria was an empire, or just an advanced “civilization,” its influence was worldwide. Jean Hunt makes some interesting comments:

“Joseph Campbell wrote an exhaustive study of mythology in four volumes, under the umbrella-title, The Masks of G-d. In these volumes, he examined the oral and written literature, and history, art, archaeological data, and anthropological information on living primitive groups. The first volume was printed in 1959, the last in 1968; Campbell therefore did not have the benefit of the definitive dating which began appearing in the mid-1970s. He commented on an odd ‘truncation,’ not explainable by the data available at that time: the major reservoirs of information began in Sumer (Italics added), about 4000 BCE, and spread out swiftly into Africa, Europe, India, China, and North and South America within a 2000-year period. Campbell remarked on this sudden ‘mushrooming’ of literacy, astronomy, mathematics, formalized religion, and the invention of the wheel with no then-known ‘bed,’ other than the microlithic flints of the Capsian ‘Mesolithic’ culture.

“The new dating information, which places a highly sophisticated, technologically advanced civilization in Western Europe, moving outward and spreading its culture, partly closes the gap; the continuity of their religion, in particular, is suggested by practices involving a priesthood, hero themes, puberty rites, names of gods, rites and rituals, and other elements, especially when exactly similar details are found in widely separated geographical areas and culture groups.”[14]

Just how far did Shem’s empire extend, and how far did his influence spread? Claiming no absolute certainty, we see Sumerian examples of language, building structures, and other examples all around the world. Even religious and mythological similarities abound.

Considering the similarities of language, culture, and religion, from the Indus Valley to the Middle East, Jean Hunt[15] says:

“The Sumerians...in their ancient traditions remembered that the civilization of their country and the art of writing had come from the East. The Babylonian priest Berossus, while writing the history of Mesopotamia in the third century BCE, carefully collected all the ancient traditions of the land...he avers that in very early times there was no civilization in the land and that its people were like brutes...some people came from the east by sea and taught them civilization and the art of writing.”

Note that “coming by sea” could mean coming across the Flood waters, probable indication being that Shem’s kingdom had risen before the Flood and continued after it. Remember that Shem was almost 100 years old at the time of the Deluge. “Shem” means “the Appointed One” his pre-eminence was divinely destined to him, of the three sons of Noah.

Regarding skeletal findings and other evidence of relationship between (Minoan Crete) and the people in India, Sumer, and Egypt, Hunt (still quoting Heras) says,

“...Skull measurements have shown that it would be difficult to choose between the primitive Indian or Egyptian series as the group to which the Sumerians are closer. It is acknowledged moreover that Egypt received the main elements of its civilization from the lands of Mesopotamia where an older civilization was already in existence (Italics added). The first Pre-dynastic Culture forms the foundation of the later Egyptian development and was no doubt due in the main to the native Hamitic population of North Africa carrying on the tradition of the higher type of culture that had been introduced into the Nile valley by the Badarian people (of Sumer). It underwent a still further development at a later period owing to the appearance in Egypt of the new type of civilization known as the second Pre-dynastic Culture (which is described as Semitic from Palestine).

“Poisson acknowledges that the cult of Osiris (Nimrod and the pagan religion) owes its origin to the Asiatic current, just as the cult of Set (Seth, the son of Adam and representing the true ‘religion’) is due to another race; the fight between these two gods personifies the fight of the two races. There is evidence of specific contact between Egypt and Sumerian culture during the period of the rise and establishment of the Egyptian kingdom.”[16]

If not a world empire by military conquest, the Sumerian civilization was, at the very least, a worldwide “empire” with its cultural and scientific influences.

A Closer Look at “Semites”

Today the word “Semitic” is used to refer to Jews, but how accurate is this? The word is a derivation of the name Shem, one of three sons of Noah who came across the Flood. Shem’s sons were Elam, Asshur, Arphaxad, Lud, and Aram (Genesis 10:22). The Patriarch Abraham traced his lineage through Heber from Arphaxad, being called in Scripture “The first Hebrew” from Heber, and undoubtedly retaining the same language, the original language, intact through the confusing of tongues at the Tower of Babel.

Abraham’s son Isaac had two sons, Esau and Jacob. Jacob’s name was changed to Israel, and one of his sons, Judah, became the Jews, the so-called “Semites” of today. However, all the tribes-turned-nations claiming descent from Noah’s son Shem could make the same claim. Elam and Asshur founded the nations of Elam and Assyria, well-known historical nations. The descendants of Aram became the Aramaean people whose name was attached to a Semitic language called Aramaic.

Abraham had many other descendants who also can be called Semites. This included Ishmael, his son by his Egyptian concubine-wife Hagar, who married an Egyptian woman and gave rise to the Arab race. Arabs, then, are Semites. Another wife of Abraham was Keturah. The majority of Semites in the world are not Jews. The term “Jew” itself can be used in both a racial and religious sense. One can thereby be a Jew in religion but not necessarily in race or nationality.

The modern nation of “Israel” is very much a misnomer. Its true name of “Judah” would be much more appropriate, since the Jews comprised just one Tribe of Israel. After the split at Solomon’s death, the northern ten Tribes came to be called “Israel.” The southern kingdom was composed of the Tribes of Judah (the “Jews”), Levi (the Levitical Priesthood), and a small part of Benjamin. It is these three Tribes that the world calls “Israel” today.

Other Sumerian Influences

How much did the Sumerians influence language around the world? We find evidence of the language from almost every continent. Below is a list of Akkadian loan words in Eskimo, as well as Egyptian and Berber-Polynesian words.
Esk. tigu, take. Akkad. digu, fetch.
Esk. keroa, lamenting. Akkad. killu, lamenting.
Esk. kelu, inferior. Akkad. galalu, small, insignificant.
Esk. kollu, basket. Akkad. xaru, receptacle.
Esk. karao, cry out. Akkad. qalu, call. Egypt, karuai, a call, a cry.
Esk. alukta, sack. Egypt. karekta, basket.
Esk. pelekta, cut out. Egypt. perekh. Akkad. Paraku, split, separate.
Esk. ukarua, soft soil. Egypt. kheru, swamp.
Esk. pok, container. Poly. poha, basket.
Esk. kopah, half. Poly. kapa, half.
Esk. ublar, morning. Berb. ibaribar, dawnrise.
Esk. putuk, hole. Poly. poutag, steep.

“...There are many hybridized Egypto-Berber-Polynesian languages, and in any one of them, some Akkadian words are likely to turn up. And, of course, it is entirely possible that Eskimo derives these loan words from two or more independent culture contacts.”[17]

Trans-oceanic contacts and migrations are part of the traditions of many nations, including “Native” American cultures. “In (Nez Perce) Chief Joseph’s medicine pouch was found a 1 inch square ceramic tablet inscribed with cuneiform, which was deciphered by a cuneiform specialist as a receipt for a lamb or calf to be used in an offering in the Persian Gulf in about 2042 BCE.”[18]

Flavin comments considerably on the influence of writing by use of ancient calendar signs. “There is,” he said (quoting Dr. Hugh A. Moran’s The Alphabet and the Ancient Calendar Signs), “...a vast body of evidence suggesting the Chinese system of writing and the alphabet were both inspired by an ancient twenty-eight sectioned lunar zodiac, or calendar, which Moran believed was Chaldean in origin.”[19] (Be reminded that the original calendar in the Hebrew Scriptures given by CREATOR to His followers was lunar based, not solar.)

Flavin, continuing, says, “Moran rightly made much of the fact that the Chinese lunar zodiac contains ‘the ox’ and is followed by ‘woman, daughter,’ and the Hebrew alphabet that begins with Aleph or ‘the bull’ also is followed by Beth or ‘a daughter.’ Another noteworthy correspondence is the meander M, the 13th letter of the alphabet and meaning waters in Semitic, matching the 13th constellation from the ox, which may represent the crossing of the ecliptic by the Milky Way, or the River of heaven. It was unfortunately beyond Moran to offer a theoretical mechanism whereby the lunar zodiacs diffused over such great distances, though he believed it was through the Sumero-Babylonians” (Italics added).

Although Moran failed to demonstrate adequately why the calendar signs served as the structural basis for written characters in Asia, the Near East, and Europe, the day names of the Mayan calendar convinced him the lunar zodiac, even in the New World, was culturally significant and served as the basis for the hieroglyphic writing system of the Maya.

Flavin further says, “Professor Cyrus H. Gordon was one of the first scholars to publish accessible information on the importance of the cuneiform alphabet from the Bronze Age kingdom of Ugarit, located by modern boundaries in western Syria. The Ugarit cuneiform alphabet is among the earliest and best understood examples of the alphabet...the mechanism Prof. Gordon offered for the distribution of lunar zodiacs and the diffusion of the alphabet was an ancient global network of mariners sharing basic elements of a common culture (Italics added).

“In 1965, publishing in the same journal as Vander Waerden had sixteen years previously, Willy Hartner detailed his conclusions of a zodiacal constellation tradition which was fixed before c. 4000 BCE...Hartner admits the earliest constellation names are Sumerian.”[20]

Early Sumerians might have influenced Japan too. There are “...strong parallels between the ancient cultures of Japan and the Near East in areas involving mythology and religion. For example, the name Sumer in ancient cuneiform texts was written as Ki – En – Gi (-RA), which means ‘The Land of Rushes.’ Until W.W.II, the Japanese called Japan ‘the country of abundant water rushes and rice plains.’ Rushes are a species of rice, and their presence would indicate a fertile environment for rice culture. The symbolism of rushes might have developed as part of primitive agriculture, becoming an archetypal association which also involved its use for thatched roofing, boats, baskets, floor coverings, etc. in ancient times. The mythic Sumerian hero Gilgamesh survived the great flood in a ship built of rushes.”[21]

Cylinder Stones found in the Kenu area of Japan had engravings on them that reminded the author of the Sumerian myth of Inanna, queen of the sky and rich harvests. He also saw a surprising parallel between the Sumerian myth of Inanna and the Mysterious Festival enacted at Kasukawa Village. The word “Kasukawa” itself “...reminds us of rushes. ‘Kasu’ means sweet fermented rice grounds used for sake brewing and ‘kawa’ means river.”

Similar beliefs, of course, could have been held by different peoples, both before and after the confusion of tongues at Babel. After that event, much mixing and mingling of ideas, innovations, and literature would have been evident. Rather than Sumerians themselves going to these different places, perhaps just their ideas, myths, and other influences could have made the journeys as the people spread out. The greater weight of evidence, though, points to these Sumerian people as being great navigators and world travelers who created the “zodiac” as compass points and who undoubtedly visited and colonized other parts of the earth, bringing their advanced ideas with them.

Sumerian Fashion Influence

A brief look at fashions, shows further Sumerian influence. An interesting comparison of fashions of those of Dilmun and Sumer was done by Ali Akbar Habib Bushiri, the Director of the Bahrain Research and Service Centre.

The cultures of Dilmun and Sumer shared a common fashion, which was interesting because Dilmun seemed to copy the fashions of Sumer rather than its closer Indus Valley fashions. “By 2400 BCE, the Dilmun culture started to change from Sumerian to Akkadian fashions. This period marked the decline of Sumer. Why did not the Dilmun culture develop its own independent fashions like the Sumer and Indus Valley civilizations [had done]? They were without doubt independently developed, but why were their fashions of Sumerian or Mesopotamian origin?”

His study found no noticeable differences between Dilmun and Sumerian fashions. He believes it very probable that the Dilmun culture was of Sumerian origin, thus showing one more argument that Sumeria settled in, or carried its influence to, many parts of the world.

Not surprisingly, the author found that all the hair and hat styles found carved on Dilmun seals are of Sumerian origin, with a few examples of the Accadian style, and that being after the decline of Sumer as a cultural power.

The hair and hat styles were the same. “The Sumerian men were either clean-shaven or wore long beards and had long hair parted in the middle...(which) was then plaited into a pigtail and wound around the head. They often wore an elaborate headdress consisting of hair-ribbons, beads, and pendants.

“One noticeable difference between Dilmun and Sumerian styles was that the men of Dilmun wore (the same) trimmed beards, but shaved their upper lips. Their hair was rolled into a bean at the back and held by a fillet.”

The Sumerian men’s beards were used also by the Akkadians in the style of Sargon the Great, meaning that the beards were long, thick-shaped, and triangular, with their width decreasing as they went down. The other Sumerian style, as mentioned, was clean-shaven. This style was without moustache or beard, and with no hair on the head. It was used frequently with the Kodia hat, or the Amamah.

Bushiri’s conclusion: “There are no different Dilmunian and Sumerian fashions. The origin of Dilmun fashions is totally Sumerian, showing a strong Sumerian social influence.”[22]

A myriad of evidence shows the Sumerians to have been a worldwide empire, with their influence found in many nations on the earth. “The ancient Hebrew-Israelites were descended from Shem, from whom came the Sumerians in Mesopotamia, founders of early civilization.”[23]

Later we will find that these Israelites carried on the Sumerian’s cultural and empire-building traditions, down through, and by right of, the Covenant Promise to Abraham, establishing empires and spreading the same culture to all corners of the globe.

[ The History and Future of Israelite America index ]

[ Chapter 2: Israelite Claims to the Americas ]

[ The Hope of Israel Main Page ]

[1] Fagan, Brian M., People of the Earth, pp. 329, 343.

[2] Pye, Lloyd, Everything You Know Is Wrong, p. 192.

[3] Berlitz, Charles, Atlantis the Eighth Continent, pp. 128-129.

[4] Pye, p. 195.

[5] Ibid., pp. 195-196.

[6] Berlitz, p. 124.

[7] Pye, p. 198.

[8] The English word “before” in Gen 10:9 is defined in Gesenius’ Hebrew-Chaldee Lexicon to the Old Testament by H.W.F. Gesenius (numbers H6437 and H6440) as “C) before, in front of manifest loathing in their countenances. D-2) before as taking the lead, chiefly used of a general or leader... to meet anyone frequently with a hostile sense. G-1) to the face, before the face” or today “in your face.” Therefore, a better reading of Gen 10:9 (KJV) is “a mighty hunter in place of the CREATOR.”

[9] Berlitz, p. 128. It also could have been an invention of Israelites, since some later colonized Greece.

[10] A military formation of infantry carrying overlapping shields and long spears.

[11] Hislop, Alexander, The Two Babylons, p. 21.

[12] Ibid., pp. 6, 25, 26. Hislop is quoting Justin, Hist. Rom. Script., Vol. II, p. 615.

[13] Ibid., p. 23.

[14] Hunt, Jean, Tracking the Flood Survivors, p. 259.

[15] Hunt is quoting H. Heras’, Studies in Proto-Indo-Mediterranean Culture, Bombay Indian Historical Research Institute, Bombay, India, 1953.

[16] Ibid., pp. 164-165.

[17] Ibid., p. 165.

[18] Dexter, Warren, “Correspondence,” Epigraphic Society Occasional Papers, (ESOP), 1998, p. 14.

[19] Flavin, Richard D., “The Karanovo Zodiac and Old European Linear,” ESOP, 1998, p. 86.

[20] Ibid., pp. 89-92.

[21] Fududa, Hideko, “From Japan to the Ancient Orient: a Consideration of Kenu District Rock Inscriptions,” ESOP, 1998, p. 100.

[22] Bushiri, Ali Akbar Habib, “Dilmun Fashion in the Third Millennium B.C.,” ESOP, 1986, p. 199-203.

[23] Davidy, Lost Israelite Identity, p. 9.